Assertive women are perceived to be 35% less competent than those who aren’t.

Women receive negative personality criticism,
such as being called ‘bossy’ or being told to ‘watch your tone’ in about 75% of performance reviews.

Source: Why Women Are Seen as Abrasive When Being Assertive at Work by ZandaX

Quoted in Piece: 1, Andrews University, Spring 2021

The ‘motherhood penalty:’ the typical mother sees her earning power drop by 4% for each child she has. Interestingly, the opposite is true for men. Upon becoming a father, men see their income rise by 6%. That inverse relationship suggests that employers may still largely view men and women in traditional roles, with women as caregivers and men as breadwinners.

Source: The Hidden Penalty of Motherhood – The Balance

Quoted in Piece: 2, Andrews University, Spring 2021

As with many other traits and behaviors, motherhood or taking time off for childcare may have little real productivity effects in itself but may nevertheless generate significant wage effects whenever employers believe more family-oriented behaviors to be correlated with mothers’ lower productivity on the job and consequently decide to stigmatize working mothers

Source: Motherhood, Labor Force Behavior, and Women’s Careers: An Empirical Assessment of the Wage Penalty for Motherhood in Britain, Germany, and the United States – US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health

Quoted in Piece: 2, Andrews University, Spring 2021

Moms are more productive than non-moms throughout their careers. 

Source: One study that illustrates how screwed up America’s approach to family life is – Vox

Quoted in Piece: 2, Andrews University, Spring 2021

Women make up 51% of the
U.S. population, but hold fewer than 25% of political offices.

Some women in politics say it is a more sexist arena than the private sector. Nearly three in four women say they have felt discriminated against in politics.

Source: Shifting Gears: How Women Navigate the Road to Higher Office – Political Parity

Quoted in Piece: 3, Andrews University, Spring 2021

Women are nearly twice as likely to report needing to provide more evidence of their competence, and are more likely to have their judgement questioned in their area of expertise and to be the targets of demeaning remarks.

Source: 7 Striking Facts About the State of Women in the Workplace – The Muse

Quoted in Piece: 3, Andrews University, Spring 2021

Men are more likely than women to talk over others, especially in ways that convey their dominance.

When women advocate for diversity, they are often accused of being self-serving and nepotistic. Diversity is typically better received when proposed by men.

Source: Who won’t shut up in meetings? Men say it’s women. It’s not. – The Washington Post

Quoted in Piece: 4, Andrews University, Spring 2021

One in five employed women in the U.S. have been sexually harassed at work.

Source: 10 things we learned about gender issues in the U.S. in 2017 – Pew Research Center

Quoted in Piece: 5, Andrews University, Spring 2021

Sexual harassment may include unwelcome verbal, visual, nonverbal, or physical conduct that is of a sexual nature or based on someone’s sex.
Currently, workplace harassment must be “severe or pervasive” and affect working conditions in order to meet legal standards for action.

Research suggests that only 1 in 10 of those who experience harassment ever formally report incidents of harassment.
Reporting can be dangerous for the affected individual. In one analysis, 71% of sexual harassment charges included a charge of retaliation.

Source: Sexual Harassment and Assault at Work: Understanding the Costs – Institute for Women’s Policy Research

Quoted in Piece: 5, Andrews University, Spring 2021